Insertion Sort
Insertion Sort is a simple sorting algorithm that builds the final sorted array one item at a time. It is much less efficient on large lists than more advanced algorithms such as QuickSort, MergeSort, or HeapSort, but it has the advantage of being simple to understand and implement. Insertion Sort works similarly to the way we sort playing cards in our hands. We start with an empty left hand and the cards face down on the table. We then remove one card at a time from the table and insert it into the correct position in the left hand.
Problem Statement
Given an array of integers, the goal is to sort the array in ascending order using the Insertion Sort algorithm.
Example
Let's take the array [5, 1, 0, 9, 3, 1, 6, 3, 7, 1, 5, 12]
as an example.
Idea to Solve
The basic idea behind Insertion Sort is to divide the input array into two parts: a sorted part and an unsorted part. Initially, the sorted part contains only the first element of the array, and the unsorted part contains the rest of the elements. The algorithm then iterates through the unsorted part and inserts each element into its correct position in the sorted part.
Pseudocode
function insertionSort(arr):
for i from 1 to length(arr)  1:
currentElement = arr[i]
j = i  1
while j >= 0 and arr[j] > currentElement:
arr[j + 1] = arr[j]
j = j  1
arr[j + 1] = currentElement
Algorithm Explanation
 Start iterating through the array from the second element (index 1) to the last element.
 For each element, store its value in
currentElement
.  Initialize
j
as the index of the previous element (i.e.,i  1
).  While
j
is nonnegative and the element at indexj
is greater thancurrentElement
, shift the element at indexj
one position to the right.  Decrement
j
by 1.  Place
currentElement
in the correct position, which isj + 1
.  Repeat steps 26 until the entire array is sorted.
Code Solution

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Time Complexity
The worstcase time complexity of the Insertion Sort algorithm is O(n^2), where n is the number of elements in the array. This occurs when the input array is in reverse order, and for each element, we need to shift all previous elements to the right. In the bestcase scenario (already sorted array), the algorithm runs in O(n) time. The averagecase time complexity is also O(n^2), making Insertion Sort less efficient compared to more advanced sorting algorithms for larger datasets.
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